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Source: The National Post Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.nationalpost.com/ Pubdate: Tuesday, May 11, 1999 Author: Luiza Chwialkowska Dying man wins right to use marijuana A Toronto man dying with AIDS has won the right to cultivate, produce, and smoke marijuana for medical purposes. Justice Harry LaForme of the Ontario Superior Court yesterday granted Jim Wakeford, a Toronto AIDS activist, a constitutional exemption from criminal prosecution under Canada's drug laws. The ruling temporarily allows Mr. Wakeford to use marijuana until Allan Rock, the Health Minister, decides whether to grant Mr. Wakeford a special exemption under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. "Mr. Wakeford's application is bona fide, for a legitimate medical purpose, and one which merits genuine consideration," wrote Judge LaForme, whose ruling implied that he expected Mr. Rock to eventually grant a permanent exemption. "I am gratified and exhilarated. I was granted some relief," Mr. Wakeford, 54, said yesterday. This is the second time a Canadian court has allowed the medicinal use of marijuana, but the first time a higher court has done so. "Jim can now possess and grow marijuana, and, I presume, walk down the street smoking it," said Alan Young, an Osgoode Hall law professor and Mr. Wakeford's lawyer. The victory will open the door to other terminally ill patients who seek relief from the courts, he added. "This decision shows that a court would be willing to provide constitutional remedies if the government is unwilling to help people like Jim," said Mr. Young. "Anybody who is in a similar situation to Jim's could apply for a constitutional exemption while the government scrambles to figure out its marijuana policy." However, Mr. Wakeford said he fears the decision may be only a partial victory because the judge did not say whether the friends who take care of him can legally help him grow cannabis. "The judge did not deal with the issue of caregivers and supply," said Mr. Wakeford, the founder of Casey House, Canada's first free-standing AIDS hospice. He says his illness prevents him from growing marijuana on his own. "I grew a crop last year with a great deal of help from friends. I'm not a professional grower." Nonetheless, the ruling is a long-awaited victory for Mr. Wakeford, who had asked the court in February, 1998, for permission to use marijuana. He and his doctor, Toronto AIDS specialist John Goodhew, testified the drug had helped keep Mr. Wakeford alive by countering the destructive side effects of his anti-viral medication, such as loss of appetite. Last year, he came close to death as the side effects of his medication caused his weight to drop to 116 pounds from 140. Judge LaForme had dismissed the demand last September, noting Mr. Wakeford could request a special exemption from the health minister. Mr. Wakeford returned to court last week, demonstrating he had applied for such permission months ago and is still waiting for his application to wind its way through a byzantine bureaucratic process at Health Canada. After hearing a Health Canada official testify about the process for processing applications, the judge agreed it is too slow and untested to adequately protect Mr. Wakeford's rights. "It is unknown whether or not the process can work or even if it is capable of doing so, and if so, can it do so in a meaningful and timely fashion," Judge LaForme wrote, after listening to the testimony of Carole Bouchard, an official for Health Canada. "Ms. Bouchard said that the process to consider [medical marijuana] applications was only beginning. She said the structure and personnel to review application is not complete, and she cannot say how long it will take to consider and decide upon Mr. Wakeford's application," the judge noted. He said he was pleased by the Health Department's work. "I am personally impressed and comforted by the action of the government on the issue of medical marijuana," he wrote. The government may yet appeal the decision, said Derek Kent, a spokesman for Mr. Rock. The minister intends to present a research plan on the medical use of marijuana before the House rises for the summer, Mr. Kent said. - - CClist, the electronic news and information service of Cannabis Culture To unsubscribe, send a message to firstname.lastname@example.org containing the command "unsubscribe cclist". - Subscribe to Cannabis Culture Magazine! Write to: 324 West Hastings Street, Vancouver BC, CANADA, V6B 1A1 Call us at: (604) 669-9069, or fax (604) 669-9038. Visit Cannabis Culture online at http://www.cannabisculture.com/Top of Article.
October 28, 1998
From The Age
By Stephen Cauchi
A man who became the first driver in Victoria to be accurately tested for marijuana use after he was involved in a fatal accident walked free from a court yesterday.
DRUG-TEST DRIVER WALKS FREE
Cameron Hilliard Brown, 20, of Scoresby Road, Ferntree Gully, was sentenced to two yearsí jail, suspended for two years, and had his licence cancelled for two years.
Brownís car crashed head-on with another car on Philip Island on 14 January 1996. The woman driving the other car was killed.
Judge Leo Hart said in his sentencing remarks yesterday that Brown either fell asleep at the wheel or lost control. "The other driver was in no way responsible." he said.
Brown, whom a jury found guilty of culpable driving, had an analysis of the amount of marijuana in his blood used as evidence in his trial.
A police spokesman said yesterday that the analysis, using equipment from South Australia, was the first time the amount of marijuana in a personís bloodstream had been accurately measured as opposed to merely detected, in Victoria.
But the relationship between marijuana use and driver impairment, unlike that of alcohol and driving impairment, was still unclear, he said.
Judge Hart said: "I do not find you were so affected by cannabis as to lose control." He said Brown was negligent only because he was sleepy and that his crime was "very low on the scale of culpable driving".
He said Brown had no prior convictions, came from a close, law-abiding family, was of good character, was frank and cooperative with police and greatly shocked by the incident.
He said that although Brown pleaded not guilty, this was understandable given his unclear memory of the accident, in which he was injured.
The State Government announced in September that drivers suspected of taking drugs would be forced to give blood for testing.
Copyright: 1998 David Syme & Co Ltd
Top of Article.Grant Krieger sentencing Sunday, 18-Oct-98 01:25:56 Message: 184.108.40.206 writes: On Monday, October 19, Grant Krieger will appear for sentencing for the third and hopefully last time. To recap: Grant is an MS sufferer who was charged with possession and intent to traffic 23 grams of pot. He launched a Constitutional Challenge which was rejected and he was found guilty. But upon hearing the testimony of the only two witnesses, Grant and his daughter Lindsay, a second year University of Calgary Law student, the judge was intrigued enough to ask for information on medicinal marijuana. At the first sentencing appearance the Crown Prosecutor asked Judge Davies for an adjournment because she was out of town on a verifiable family emergency. At the next sentencing appearance, Judge Davies requested undisclosed information that only Grant himself could provide and delayed sentencing until this current date. He implied that upon receiving this information, this case could have implications up to the international level. The information has been passed on and no notification has been given that the court date will delayed. Grant says "it is black and white". He will also be appearing on Canada A.M. on Tuesday morning. Grant Krieger contact info: 64 Erin Circle S.E. Calgary, Alberta T2B 3H9 (403) 235-1244MARC EMERY DIRECT MARIJUANA SEEDS RAIDED! By Dana Larsen Marc Emery Direct Seeds was raided today (Wednesday, September 2). At 5:15pm, six Vancouver cops stormed the office, taking three employees to jail where they will spend the night. Marc Emery was not in the office, and he expected to have to turn himself in on Thursday morning. However, police called Marc at home to inform him that they will not be arresting him until Friday. They claim that this is because they need the time "for the warrant to go through". However, it is also a long weekend, and so Marc will likely stay in jail from Friday until Tuesday, four long nights. If they arrested him on Thursday he would only spend one night in jail. This raid on Marc Emery Seeds is clearly part of Mayor Philip Owen and Police Chief Bruce Chambers' personal vendetta against Marc Emery. Marc is already facing eight counts of selling marijuana seeds, from the January 1996 raid on Hemp BC. The trial date has been postponed and delayed countless times, and has been finally set for April, 1999. City authorities clearly want to drive Marc out of business without having to risk a trial by jury. City Hall has been intensifying their efforts against Hemp BC and Marc Emery in recent months. Hemp BC was raided on December 17, and then again on April 30, two months after Marc Emery had sold it to Sister Icee. City officials have also been slandering Hemp BC in the media. Even though Hemp BC has not sold marijuana seeds since Marc sold the store to Sister Icee back in March, Vancouver Police Media Liaison Anne Drennan recently told a local newspaper that Hemp BC sells both marijuana seeds and actual marijuana over the counter! Meanwhile, Mayor Owen recently told the New York Times that Hemp BC would "be toast by September". These concentrated attacks against Vancouver's marijuana advocates must be strongly opposed. Mayor Owen and Police Chief Chambers want to close Hemp BC and put Marc Emery in jail for a long time. They're having a hard time accomplishing their goals, but they have many resources at their command. If City Hall were to ever force Marc Emery out of business (fat chance!) then it would spell disaster for all other Marijuana Seed merchants in Vancouver and across Canada. Marc Emery is the vanguard of Canada's Marijuana Movement, and has almost single-handedly opened up the marijuana seed market in Canada. CONTACT THESE MEDIA: Please contact the following media and let them know what you think about the police raid on Marc Emery, and City Hall's attacks on Hemp BC: Vancouver Sun: email@example.com Vancouver Province: firstname.lastname@example.org The Globe and Mail: email@example.com CONTACT THESE OFFICIALS: Send an email to Mayor Philip Owen telling him he should stop persecuting Marc Emery and Hemp BC: firstname.lastname@example.org. You can also call Mayor Owen at (604) 873-7621, or fax him at (604) 873-7685. Send an email to the Vancouver Police Department, telling them they are tools of a fascist anti-pot regime: email@example.com. You can also call Police Chief Bruce Chambers at (604) 717 2950, or fax him at (604) 665-3417. Send an email to BC Premier Glen Clark, asking him to support pot-people and put an end to raids on Marc Emery: firstname.lastname@example.org. You can also give him a call at (604) 431-8119, or fax him at (604) 660-0279. STATEMENT FOR CUSTOMERS OF MARC EMERY SEEDS: DON'T PANIC! BUSINESS WILL CONTINUE AS USUAL Despite the raid, business at Marc Emery Direct Marijuana Seeds will continue on as usual. We will be completely restocked within 2 days and will continue to fill all orders in a timely fashion. We do not keep any incriminating records of our customers, so there is no need for paranoia. However, some orders which had arrived in the office during the previous three days were in the office when it was raided. Although Vancouver Police have never gone after anyone because their address was found in our office, it does mean that we will not be able to fill those orders. We need your business now more than ever. We will continue to provide you with high-quality marijuana seeds for as long as we are able. If City Hall were to ever force Marc Emery out of business (fat chance!) then it would spell disaster for all other Marijuana Seeds Merchants in Vancouver and across Canada. Marc Emery is the vanguard of Canada's Marijuana Movement, and has almost single-handedly opened up the marijuana seed market in Canada. Please continue to support our business through this difficult time. We need you and you need us, so let's work together to bring marijuana to all people who need it, everywhere. Keep those orders coming, we will fill every single one of them! If you really love marijuana then just send us a donation. Like all raids, this one will be financially devastating, and we need all the help we can get. However, we won't let a little thing like a police raid stop us. This is the 10th time Marc Emery has been arrested in Vancouver, and the 8th time he will spend the night in jail for a marijuana-related offence. We don't like being raided, and we'll never get used to it, but we know how to survive, and we will. You can send Marc a message of support at: email@example.com Visit Marc Emery Direct Marijuana Seeds at: http://www.cannabisculture.com/seeds/ - - CClist, the electronic news and information service of Cannabis Culture To unsubscribe, send a message to firstname.lastname@example.org containing the command "unsubscribe cclist". - Subscribe to Cannabis Culture Magazine! Write to: 324 West Hastings Street, Vancouver BC, CANADA, V6B 1A1 Call us at: (604) 669-9069, or fax (604) 669-9038. Visit Cannabis Culture online at http://www.cannabisculture.com/ .Source: Vancouver Sun (Canada) Contact: email@example.com Tuesday 8 September 1998 Judge okays ill man's marijuana use By Rick Ouston A Vancouver man who, police say, grew up to $50,000 worth of marijuana in his basement has been granted a discharge by a judge who believed his argument that he used the drug to battle glaucoma. Stanley Czolowski, charged by police with producing and trafficking in three kilograms of marijuana last August, admitted he was guilty but successfully argued that marijuana is the only substance that allows him to combat the crushing pain and nausea that are side-effects of his condition and the prescription medications he must ingest. In the transcript of a decision released to his lawyer, John Conroy, late last week and obtained exclusively by the Vancouver Sun, provincial court Judge Jane Godfrey said she accepted that Czolowski used and trafficked in the restricted drug. The litany of problems suffered by 44-year-old Czolowski because of his condition -- including pressure in the eyeball, deteriorating vision, nausea from other drugs, lack of appetite and crushing fatigue -- was a powerful argument against banning marijuana from people who use it medicinally, she said. "I have heard from the accused and I have read the material that is filed in terms of what his daily existence is like, and I have no difficulty whatsoever in understanding his personal motivation and I have extreme sympathy for his personal situation," she said. In a judgment that appears to be the first of its kind in Canada, she granted him a discharge both for possession and trafficking. Czolowski was selling his home-grown pot to the Compassion Club, a Vancouver group that distributes free or low-cost marijuana to people suffering from diseases ranging from glaucoma to cancer, AIDS and epilepsy. An Ontario justice ruled in December that Canada's marijuana laws unfairly denied the right of a Toronto epileptic to an effective medication for his condition, but Terry Parker had been charged only with possession, not trafficking. In the Vancouver ruling, Judge Godfrey took the Parker decision into consideration, saying the judge in that case had ruled that denying Parker possession of marijuana did little or nothing to enhance the state's interest in better health for a member of the community. She wrote: "I have considered the facts before me and the case law and in all of the circumstances I am satisfied it's not contrary to the public interest, notwithstanding the volume involved, and certainly it's in the interests of the accused to grant him a discharge, and I do so conditional on his entering into a probation order to keep the peace and be of good behaviour for a period of one year. Those are the only terms of the order." Godfrey also noted that her stance on pot applied only to medicinal marijuana. "I should indicate that I consider this case to be unique on its facts," she said. "This is not an open invitation to others to follow the accused's approach, absent medical problems of their own." Lawyer Conroy, who has also represented clients arguing a constitutional challenge of the country's pot laws, told the court he would try to get a doctor to prescribe marijuana to Czolowski, a way to circumvent the federal law restricting access to narcotics and other drugs from general use. Court was told that police raided Czolowski's rented Marpole home in August 1997, acting on a tip. In the basement they found hydroponic equipment, 14 full-size pot plants, 20 small plants from five to 30 centimetres tall and 28 infant plants a few centimetres tall. Police estimated the value of the plants at $35,000 to $50,000. Czolowski, a freelance photographer and silversmith, produced medical evidence at his trial showing he suffers from a type of glaucoma called open-angle, which causes deterioration of vision, a condition he believes he inherited from his father, Ted, who also worked as a photographer and suffers glaucoma. Although he receives no criminal record and was given no jail time or fines -- marijuana cultivation can be punishable by up to seven years in prison, while the maximum penalty for trafficking is life -- police did seize and retain about $2,500 worth of growing equipment, Czolowski's wife, Trudy Greif, said. - - CClist, the electronic news and information service of Cannabis Culture To unsubscribe, send a message to firstname.lastname@example.org containing the command "unsubscribe cclist". - Subscribe to Cannabis Culture Magazine! Write to: 324 West Hastings Street, Vancouver BC, CANADA, V6B 1A1 Call us at: (604) 669-9069, or fax (604) 669-9038. Visit Cannabis Culture online at http://www.cannabisculture.com/ .Source: Vancouver Province (Canada) Contact: email@example.com Pubdate: Thu 17 Sep 1998 News A4 Author: Jack Keating, Staff Reporter City cops use U.S. agents in drug bust Use of foreign investigators `bizarre, chilling' Vancouver police used U.S. military undercover agents to gather evidence for a marijuana bust at Hemp B.C. and the Cannabis Cafe. Court documents show that four U.S. Navy undercover agents were used in an attempt to buy marijuana and then smoke it at the internationally known emporiums in the 300-block of West Hastings. The four agents were named in an application for a search warrant that led to a raid on the stores on April 30. The documents show the U.S. Naval Criminal Investigative Service agents worked in a joint operation with Vancouver police in April. Jim Millar, lawyer for Shelley Francis, who owns the stores, called the use of the U.S. agents ``absolutely bizarre.'' ``Politically, it raises real issues about having the American war on drugs coming across our border to a [hemp] store. The fact that the Vancouver police department is using U.S. military intelligence agents as undercover agents on our city streets and on our sovereign turf is a chilling prospect.'' Vancouver Const. Anne Drennan, who said earlier that Vancouver undercover officers were used, now confirms that the force used agents from the U.S. Naval Criminal Investigative Service in the operations. ``Yes, in fact there were naval officers involved,'' she said. The use of U.S. agents ``raises questions about who is really driving drug policy in Vancouver -- who is really controlling drug policy in Vancouver,'' said Neil Boyd, professor of criminology at Simon Fraser University. ``It gives the impression that part of the American government is interested in being involved in regulating Canadian criminal law,'' Federal authorities were also surprised. ``It's not common at all that I'm aware of to use foreign investigators,'' said Bob Prior, head of the justice department's criminal-prosecution section in Vancouver, which swore the charges -- three of possession and sale of drug paraphernalia -- against Francis. The trial is set for July 19. The court documents say the navy agents were escorted to Hemp B.C., ``where they shopped for merchandise and tried to buy marijuana.'' They bought drugs elsewhere in Vancouver, the documents show. George Roberts, the assistant special agent in charge of the NCIS in the Pacific northwest, said his agents work with local police when U.S. ships are in port ``so that local people who might be trafficking in drugs don't want to sell to navy people.'' ``We're not up there enforcing our laws or your laws,'' he said. More than 3,400 sailors from the USS Constellation and the USS Rainier were in Vancouver in April. Millar, meanwhile, says he'll file an application in B.C. Supreme Court today to quash the search warrant. - - CClist, the electronic news and information service of Cannabis Culture To unsubscribe, send a message to firstname.lastname@example.org containing the command "unsubscribe cclist". - Subscribe to Cannabis Culture Magazine! Write to: 324 West Hastings Street, Vancouver BC, CANADA, V6B 1A1 Call us at: (604) 669-9069, or fax (604) 669-9038. Visit Cannabis Culture online at http://www.cannabisculture.com/ .THE NATURE OF THINGS EXPLORES MARIJUANA On September 21, 1998 AT 9 pm ON CBC, David Suzuki's "The Nature of Things" will explore the many cultural uses of cannabis. An earlier "The Nature of Things" explored "The Health Approach to Drugs". This earlier 45 minute program is available on the world wide web in "RealVideo" format in the Legalize USA online video library. http://www.legalize-usa.org/video5.htm This Summer they came to Vancouver to film at the Cannabis Compassion Club. The following story is about that visit, and was printed in Issue 14 of Cannabis Culture Magazine. For a subscription to Cannabis Culture call (604) 669-9069. THE NATURE OF WEED / by Reverend Damuzi When David Suzuki and the Nature of Things came to Vancouver's Compassion Club to do a story on medical marijuana, they found themselves knee-deep in the wilds of west-coast weed, at the foot of the fountain of health. Within minutes of meeting some of the members, and seeing the effect medical marijuana had on them, Suzuki could be heard making such statements as, "It seems like a wonder drug to me!" The Compassion Club looks like a rainforest temple. Tribal art smiles gracefully on rooms decorated with vapourizers, couches and the occasional waterfall of plants. In this environment, the toking of members and whirring of fans in the smoking lounge sound like jungle chatter. Like any jungle, there are predators. Minutes after Suzuki arrives at the club, there is an ominous telephone message. "The RCMP has you under surveillance for distribution of an illegal substance," says an anonymous caller, "Anyone who wishes to avoid arrest should leave immediately." The comforting surroundings pleasantly compliment the professionalism of the club, its design and its operators. Threats of police harassment do not scare them. They have a mission to distribute marijuana to the ill. One employee recounts that a health inspector had already passed through the club, tipped off by another anonymous call. "He told us to get a stainless-steel sink and to distribute marijuana with tongs. Then he left," she says. Meanwhile, Suzuki is mixing with the club's members as the camera crew records. Everyone eventually settles into the lounge and lights huge healing hemp zeppelins. Hilary Black, founder of the club, brings a few people forward to present their stories to Suzuki. And what he discovers startles even him. GREG'S STORY "How often do you smoke?" asks Suzuki, turning to young man named Greg Cooper. Greg is shaking uncontrollably on the couch between Suzuki and Hilary Black. "I have what doctors call a profound seizure case. They said I would be in a wheelchair," says Greg, his voice echoing with the tremors of Multiple Sclerosis. He had been diagnosed only months ago. "I want to see what happens when he smokes," Suzuki says. "I remember when you first came into the club," Hilary says, turning to Greg, "it seemed the thing that helped most was Star touching you." Greg laughs. "If I have a beautiful woman touching me ..." he says, then the trembling becomes too much. Still, he manages a shrug and a smile. The joint gets lit, and Vicci Nickleson, another MS sufferer, holds it to Greg's lips as he tokes. And tokes. And tokes. "Stop inhaling now," Dr Suzuki says, shocked at Greg's lung capacity, "you're just getting that lit now. Jeez, what a long drag that is!" As the joint leaves his lips, Greg's shaking has eased by more than half. He has another toke. "It's very dramatic the effect," Suzuki narrates, "already after two tokes. How long will it last?" "Anywhere from a couple of hours till tomorrow," Greg responds. He is still, now. VICCI'S STORY Vicci Nickleson has been an MS sufferer for over nine years, but she also has cerebral palsy and various other muscle, joint and nerve disorders. She uses marijuana to control her diseases. Her wheelchair and her mellow, cannabis-cultured mannerisms deceive people as to her awesome strength. "I have trained for nine years with MS," she says, turning to Suzuki and rolling up her sleeve, "I have arms more like a man's than a woman's." Her biceps flex convincingly at the camera, while David Suzuki's eyebrows climb his forehead in astonishment. Next, Vicci takes a box from under the coffee table and pulls a weighty wad of medals from it. "She's not just a racer, she's a champion." Black observes, "She won gold at the BC games." "Look at the camera and tell Mr Chretien," says Suzuki. And Vicci takes the opportunity to tell the Prime Minister of Canada the benefits of the healing herb, and ask him to make it legal. GOVERNMENT SELLS OUT David Suzuki, after seeing with his own eyes the amazing effects of medical marijuana, turns to Hilary Black for a few exploratory questions. He wonders about how much research has been done on the effects of various strains of marijuana. After explaining the basic difference between Indica and Sativa, she hits on an area that is the potential future of marijuana research. "One strain, for someone with MS," says Hilary Black, "will calm them down. With a different person that same strain may not help at all. So it is a lot of experimentation." Around the world, it has become evident that certain strains are better for certain illnesses. That a Glaucoma patient may benefit from a different kind of pot than an MS sufferer. Or, in some cases, that two different people with the same illness may benefit better from different strains of cannabis. The conclusion seems to be that there is no single active ingredient in marijuana that is medically effective, but rather it is the mix of variousingredients present in the healing herb which brings relief. David Suzuki picks up on the implications immediately. "I'm fascinated by what Hilary was saying about varieties," says David, "The pharmaceutical companies don't consider the complex mix of chemicals. They try to isolate one. That doesn't take account of the complex mix." Greg Cooper speaks to the camera. "I tried the [synthetic] THC pills at four times the prescribed dose nothing." David Suzuki nods his head and continues. "If you took a strain of marijuana, and tested it, it's not THC it's all of the things together that make it medicine. But the pharmaceuticals take THC and make it into a pill and it makes you got to sleep or does nothing at all." Which speaks volumes about governments which continue to ban marijuana under the pretence that not enough testing has been done. While the same governments make ineffective, synthetic THC drugs ? produced by multinational pharmaceutical corporations ? legal for sale by prescription. "The problem," Suzuki says, "is that we have a government in the pocket of big business and big business doesn't give a damn." - - CClist, the electronic news and information service of Cannabis Culture To unsubscribe, send a message to email@example.com containing the command "unsubscribe cclist". - Subscribe to Cannabis Culture Magazine! Write to: 324 West Hastings Street, Vancouver BC, CANADA, V6B 1A1 Call us at: (604) 669-9069, or fax (604) 669-9038. Visit Cannabis Culture online at http://www.cannabisculture.com/ .CHRIS CLAY DOCUMENTARY ON AIR! Found at http://www.newsworld.cbc.ca/programs/ There is also a realvideo clip at the above site. CBC NEWSWORLD -ROUGH CUTS - Broadcast Date: Sep 19, 1998 Stoned: Hemp Nation on Trial 10pm ET Sep 20, 1998 Stoned: Hemp Nation on Trial - 5am ET Sep 20, 1998 Stoned: Hemp Nation on Trial - 5pm ET Stoned: Hemp Nation on Trial (RealVideo clip) - Are Canadians ready for a change in the marijuana laws? With the recent controversy involving Olympic snowboarder Ross Rebagliati testing positive for marijuana, ROUGH CUTS presents the timely documentary STONED: Hemp Nation on Trial. This documentary follows the story of 27-year-old Chris Clay, owner of Hemp Nation in London, Ontario, who was arrested in 1995 for selling a cannabis plant cutting to an undercover police officer. Facing three life sentences for charges Clay launches a constitutional challenge to Canada's cannabis laws. Produced and directed by lawyer/filmmaker Russell Bennett, the documentary tackles the arguments surrounding decriminalizing marijuana,while Clay fights to stay out of jail. Marshalling an impressive arrayof defense witnesses, Clay argues there is no hard evidence to link marijuana to dependency or other hard drugs. Although trial judge John McCart agrees with the extensive expert testimony concerning the minimal harm of marijuana, he concludes, "It is a matter for Parliament, not for the courts." Health Minister Allan Rock, also interviewed, refuses to be pinned down on whether he personally has used marijuana, but insists Canadians are not prepared to see a change in the law. "I don't think that social attitudes have shifted enough to move the yardstick on something like the decriminalization of marijuana. Bennett, who spent a year making the documentary, says he wanted to chronicle a potential landmark court case, which may overturn the longest prohibition of a substance in Canadian history. "It is the classic storyof a man risking his freedom to challenge the system," Bennett says: Hemp Nation on Trial also features several marijuana users who smoke it for health purposes. Produced by Russell Bennett and co-directed and co-written by Bennett and Sarah Jane Flynn. - - CClist, the electronic news and information service of Cannabis Culture To unsubscribe, send a message to firstname.lastname@example.org containing the command "unsubscribe cclist". - Subscribe to Cannabis Culture Magazine! Write to: 324 West Hastings Street, Vancouver BC, CANADA, V6B 1A1 Call us at: (604) 669-9069, or fax (604) 669-9038. Visit Cannabis Culture online at http://www.cannabisculture.com/ .
Umberto Iorfida's Latest Message : Marijuana, in addition to being a proven medicine, is also used casually by persons who are not sick, and these people are not going to demand being labeled "sick" just so that they can obtain marijuana without criminal, civil, and other penalties.
1) Marijuna should be at least as legal as beer or cigarettes. That has always been NORML Canada's basic philosophy.
2) As long as quality and choice remain available to marijuana consumers, we approve an "over the counter", non-prescription, medical marijuana policy for adults.
3) N.O.R.M.L. Canada does not, in general, approve of registration of medical marijuana users since there is no reason to treat medical marijuana users any different than the rest of the population. We are not yet registering all the Jews again, are we ?
4) We do not approve any system of cannabis distribution which would deprive the consumer of choosing the very best varieties available.
5) We also approve, without any reservations, CANNABIS SMOKING COFFEESHOPS, and no restrictions on home growing of modest amounts of cannabis.
WARNING : any system of cannabis distribution which turns out to be criminalizing, bureaucracy promoting, oppressive, restrictive, discriminatory, expensive, arbitrary, or just plain extortionist, and which distributes low quality marijuana in a sociopathic environment of backstabbers and criminals, will not be tolerated by NORML Canada.
We recommend a sane and rational policy for marijuana distribution more akin to that now existing for lettuce, tomatoes, or walnuts, rather than that now existing for "contraband", or "dangerous drugs".
Umberto's latest message :
LEGALIZE MARIJUANA NOW !
or at least decriminalize it 100%, even home growing by non-medical users.
Web Maintainer Admits Major Error
Sorry, I blew it almost completely with this error. The only thing I got right was the Wikersham report origins which occurred during Hoover's term. I was even wrong about when Congress passed the resolution beginning the processes of the 21st amendment (which canceled the 18th).
Repeal of 18th Amendment Occurred In Roosevelt's First Term.
I looked in a book about Hoover, and thought I saw verification of a theory of mine, that it was Hoover who started the process of repeal. Then I got confused by the constant references to the Volstead Act. I didn't know the 18th amendment was also called the Volstead Act. Then I confused myself by passages in a book about Hoover, wherein I confused the Republican political conventions of 1932, with state constitutional conventions for repeal ! In reality, Hoover, a moderate drinker whose wife strongly disapproved of alcohol, could not go strongly against the temperance movement. Only at the Republican national convention did he finally give his assent to repeal, but the Democrats were far ahead of him on that issue.
Nearly full credit for ending prohibition should be with FDR and his Democrat supporters.(Web maintainer's contribution : ) Hardly anyone was arrested or punished. The bootleggers got to keep their wealth, and many obtained licenses and became the local beer and whiskey distributors. Many of the original bootleggers are still in legitimate alcohol business today.Found at the Lindesmith Center site :
In the 1928 presidential campaign, Herbert Hoover promised to appoint a commission to investigate how prohibition was functioning. He eventually broadened it to include a study of the entire federal criminal and judicial system. The first two volumes of the final report were about prohibition. Headed by George Wickersham, the commission issued a joint statement of "Conclusions and Recommendations" and each of the eleven commissioners also issued separate statements disagreeing with the joint statement in various ways. In total, the Wickersham Commission produced a divided and contradictory document which called for continued support for prohibition at the same time as it concluded that prohibition was working very badly and was probably unworkable.
National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement. George W. Wickersham, Chairman. Vol. 1. Proposals to Improve Enforcement of Criminals of the United States. January 13, 1930. Vol. 2. Report on the Enforcement of the Prohibition Laws of the United States. January 7, 1931. Contents: Vol. 1: Message from the President of the United States; Preliminary report on observance and enforcement of prohibition; Supplemental report to the President. Vol. 2: Introduction; The present condition as to observance and enforcement; The bad features of the present situation and difficulties in the way of enforcement; The degree of enforcement demanded; Plans which have been proposed toward more effective enforcement; Necessity of federal control; Benefits of Prohibition to be conserved; Summary of foreign systems; proposed alternatives to the present system; Conclusions and recommendations; Separate statements of the commissioners.
22 May, 1998 ; Marijuana Summit requested by B.C. Health MinisterThis fall, an all province of Canada meeting of the provincial Ministers of Health and Crown Attorneys to determine changes in the judicial policies for marijuana. This meeting is called by the British Columbia Chief Crown Attorney, and his aim is to convince the others that marijuana should be legalized and made a matter for the medical profession to handle.
Federal Health Minister Rock has recently acknowledged that changes should be made, especially with medical marijuana policy.
22 May, 1998 ; Reform MP Jim Hart Introduces Motion (M-260) regarding Medical Marijuana :"That a legislative committee of this House be instructed to prepare a bill that would instruct the government to decriminalize marijuana used for health purposes, explicitly for the purpose of providing pain relief for terminally-ill patients."
I would need to be convinced before I could support this motion.
Once again, thanks for your e-mail.
(this item courtesy of)
Leon Benoit, M.P.
15 JUNE, 1998, Cathedral Protest in Norwich EnglandFollow up 1, Follow up 2.PRESS RELEASE: 15 June 1998 (By way of email@example.com) FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE The Church of the Holy And Sacred Herb represents various religious bodies and individuals who use the plant Cannabis as Sacrament in our rituals and prayer. Our smoking of the plant cannabis in prayer and ritual and the consecration of the herb in our communion, ought not to be subject to the whims of politicians and law-makers. In Genesis, God gives mankind : "All plants that bear seed, anywhere on earth, and every tree bearing fruit which yields seed". St. Timothy, in his First Epistle, Chapter 4 verses 4 - 5, clearly explained the correct Christian attitude when he wrote: "For everything that God created is good, and nothing is to be rejected when it is taken with thanksgiving, since it is hallowed by God's own word and by prayer". (New English Bible) The Sacred use of Cannabis is not new, having been used by various religious groups for thousands of years: these include Coptic Christians, Essenes, Buddhists, Sufi's, Hindus, Jains, Moslems, Zoroastrians, and in more recent times The Ethiopian Coptic Church, Rastafarians and members of the Church of the Holy And Sacred Herb. We have contacted various Church officials and Bishops on this matter but we have received no responses. In reaction to the announcement that soon the General Synod is to discuss the issue of the prohibition of cannabis the plant we feel the urgent need to present our case to the Church of England and to seek refuge within the Church for our rituals. Accordingly various individuals associated within the Church of the Holy and Sacred Herb have invited the Bishop of Norwich to meet us to endorse our Right of Religious Ritual. We will be meeting to consecrate in prayer and smoke the Holy Plant Cannabis at 2.30 PM on Wednesday June 17th, at the Cloisters in Norwich Cathedral. All members of the public are invited to participate. For further information please telephone Craig Capps, 01603 625780. Craig J. Capps (Co-ordinator) John 8 v 32 c/o 13 Aylmer Tower, Lefroy Road, Norwich, Norfolk, England. FOLLOWUP 1 : Sorry about the garbled message full of typo's, it was done in a rush. News so far is that there were four arrests at the Cathedral in Norwich. Several other people were searched. So far as we know one has been released and at least one is still being held, apparently refusing a caution, having been found with a 'second mix' for the ritual chillum. At about 9 pm the 'office' of the CLCIA was raided by police and searched, all that was found apparently was a tin with tobacco and a few bits of something green. The item was covered by BBC Look East at 7 pm. It included shots of the chillum being lit and passed, and of the chillum being captured by a WPC. Then an interview with Craig Capps, the co-ordinator for the "Church of the Holy and Sacred Herb", who said that he was a Christian and that cannabis helped him to happiness, so why should the law try to stop him being happy. A shot of the police van driving away with their four prisoners, followed by an interview with a very nervous looking Cathedral Administrator, Tim Fawlkwell, who said he though it was inappropriate and that there were "other channels". BTW there are at least some people in Norwich who have written to the Bishop on this matter, but no replies have been received; on the other hand when someone wrote asking why he did not answer letters, the Bishop said that it was incorrect, he always replies, but that he was clear that he was against legalisation of cannabis. Several people have also knocked on his door, and in this particular case, the Bishop was invited to go to the cloisters for a consultation. This is clearly an issue of Human Rights. Their freedom to practice their 'religious rituals' are in any case violated. It raises questions for me on exactly how much 'protection' / sanctuary is the Cathedral willing to offer. Were the police invited there by the Cathdral or did they get to hear of it via the press release and act upon their own authority? hopefully the local press will pick up on it tomorrow, and hopefully the Independent on Sunday or other nationals later. Another opportunity to write a letter. May I urge evr member on these lists to start composing letters. It may well appear as a prank to those of us outside of this Church of the Holy and Sacred Church, which has, according to the TV news, 15 members in Norwich, but I can assure you that the feelings of these people are strong enough to go out and get arrested for what they believe is right, so I think that they deserve our support for sure. The addresses of the local Norwich and area press for letters are: EveningNewsLetters@ecn.co.uk, EDPLetters@ecn.co.uk, EADTLetters@ecn.co.uk If you send your letters Bcc to more than one paper, just choose one of the above three or mail a different letetr to each one. and Radio Norfolk : firstname.lastname@example.org and here are some nationals: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, Weed1@dircon.co.uk, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com re the Bible, here are some relevanet references: In Genesis, God gives mankind : "All plants that bear seed, anywhere on earth, and every tree bearing fruit which yields seed". St. Timothy, in his First Epistle, Chapter 4 verses 4 - 5, clearly explained the correct Christian attitude when he wrote: "For everything that God created is good, and nothing is to be rejected when it is taken with thanksgiving, since it is hallowed by God's own word and by prayer". (New English Bible) and John 8 v32. there's some more stuff and links re scriptures at http://www.paston.co.uk/users/webbooks/bible.html ......................................./bishop.html regards Alun JUNE 5 1998: Global Drug Day Norwich: read about war happened at: http://www.paston.co.uk/users/webbooks/pr_june1.html Cannabis world-wide : recently updated athttp://www.paston.co.uk/users/webbooks/abraod.html (yes 'abraod') Campaign to Legalise Cannabis International Association (CLCIA) 54C Peacock Street, Norwich, Norfolk, NR3 1TB, England. Campaigners' Guide : http://www.paston.co.uk/users/webbooks/index.html CLCIA : http://www.foobar.co.uk/users/ukcia/groups/clcia.html e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org Tel : +44 (0)1603 625780 "The use of cannabis ought to be a matter of choice, not of law." ======================================================================= FOLLOWUP 2 : PLEASE CIRCULATE THIS: What you can do to help: FOCUS ALERT : FOR YOUR ACTION: NORWICH POLICE INFRINGE HUMAN RIGHTS On Wednesday June 17 1998, some dozen members of the multi-denomination Church of the Holy and Sacred Herb, gathered in the open air Cloisters at Norwich cathedral, to seek and audience with the Bishop of Norwich and to consecrate and smoke a clay pipe containing herbs and possibly cannabis. These worshippers consider cannabis to be a God-given plant and use it in their meditations, prayers, communions and rituals. Cannabis is illegal in the UK and the possession of it is punishable with up to 5 years imprisonment, and supply with up to 14 years, under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. Several members of the Church of the Holy and Sacred Church and others, have written to the Bishop of Norwich, on the issue of the prohibition of their sacrament, but have not received replies. The Bishop was invited to attend at the Cloisters, but did not.. There was seemingly nobody from the Cathedral present at the ceremony. When the clay pipe - chillum- was lit and passed around the circle, Norwich uniformed police intervened and confiscated the chillum and its remaining contents. Several members of the Church were searched and four were arrested. This action by Norwich police is contrary to Articles 1, 2 and 18 of the 1948 UN Charter of Human Rights, which read: Article 1: Al Human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 2 : everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedom set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sax, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Article 18: Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or in private, to manifest his religion of belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.. The Holiness of the plant cannabis is undeniable to true Christians and is an essential part of many people's religions, including Hindu, Moslem, Jains, Coptic Christians, Sufis, Buddhists, New Age Christians and Rastafarians (Ethiopian Coptic Church). This is what the Bible says about plants and their use in prayer: St. Timothy, in his First Epistle, Chapter 4 verses 4 - 5: "For everything that God created is good, and nothing is to be rejected when it is taken with thanksgiving, since it is hallowed by God's own word and by prayer". (New English Bible). The act committed by Norwich Police is contrary to Human Rights and in terms of those who acknowledge the Holiness of cannabis when used in this way, tantamount to authorised religious persecution. The refusal of the Cathedral authorities to provide the worshippers with protection and sanctuary is a serious blemish on their worthiness of office. As a result of the arrests three people were detained at Norwich Police Stations for several hours before being released on police bail. What you can do to help. Making use of the above information, write and express your feelings - anger / annoyance /sympathy / outrage - at the treatment of the members of the Church of the Holy and Sacred Herb: write in your own words, do not be over-concerned with grammar, spelling or semantics; it is the letter which counts: The Bishop of Norwich, Bishop's House, Norwich Cathedral, Norwich NR3 1SB Fax: 01603 761613 Tel: 01603 629001 Police Complaints Authority, 10 Great George Street, London SW1P 3AE The Editor, Evening News, Prospect House, Rouen Road, Norwich, Norfolk, NR1 1RE E-mail: EveningNewsLetters@ecn.co.uk The Editor, Eastern Daily Press, Prospect House, Rouen Road, Norwich, Norfolk, NR1 1RE E-mail: EDPLetters@ecn.co.uk The Editor, The Guardian, 119 Farrington Rd, London EC1R 3ER E-mail email@example.com YOUR MP, House of Commons, London SW1A 0AA Please write your letter now. We must protect our Human Rights. From, CLCIA, 54C Peacock Street, Norwich NR3 1TB. If you get a chance to send us a copy of your letter it would help us. June 16 1998 PLEASE HELP! JUNE 5 1998: Global Drug Day Norwich: read about war happened at: http://www.paston.co.uk/users/webbooks/pr_june1.html Cannabis world-wide : recently updated athttp://www.paston.co.uk/users/webbooks/abraod.html (yes 'abraod') Campaign to Legalise Cannabis International Association (CLCIA) 54C Peacock Street, Norwich, Norfolk, NR3 1TB, England. Campaigners' Guide : http://www.paston.co.uk/users/webbooks/index.html CLCIA : http://www.foobar.co.uk/users/ukcia/groups/clcia.html e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org Tel : +44 (0)1603 625780 "The use of cannabis ought to be a matter of choice, not of law." =======================================================================
Source: The Toronto Star
Pubdate: Thursday, July 2, 1998
Author: Roberta Avery
BY ROBERTA AVERY
Cannabis Day and Canada Day in Orilla
SPECIAL TO THE STAR
ORILLIA - Police tried to douse a plan to turn Canada Day into Cannabis Day by arresting the organizer before the smoke-out began.
Although the man behind the pot fest was in jail during yesterday's festivities, several people protesting federal marijuana laws openly defied a heavy police presence at Orillia's Canada Day celebration. At least five people were charged with possession of marijuana.
"I think it's about time we made a statement by sparking up a joint," said Mike Lancaster, 35, of Orillia, who was led away in handcuffs by police to a mix of loud jeers and cheers from the crowd.
The protesters, who were calling for the legalization of marijuana, mixed with children waving flags, grandparents in lawn chairs and families enjoying picnics in Orillia's Couchiching Beach Park. "I think it's disgraceful to have this here on Canada Day," said Donna Reekie, a former Orillia resident who travelled from Calgary to attend the celebration. "This is a day for families, not this nonsense."
Ina Kealy, 40, of Caledon who said marijuana gives her relief from rheumatoid arthritis, was disappointed only a few people lit up. "That's what it's going to take to make the point," she said. "Canada is supposed to be a free country, I think we should be able to smoke a joint if we want," Tim Kors, 30, of Bracebridge, said as Orillia Mayor Ken McCann told the crowd of several hundred, "Canada is the best country in the world." Kors was among those led away in handcuffs by police.
Inspector Jim Dixon, commander of the Ontario Provincial Police detachment in Orillia, said the organizer was remanded in custody by a justice of the peace yesterday.
The crowd in the four-hectare park was swarming with OPP officers, but Dixon refused to say how many extra officers had been brought in.
The organizer, Ron Mclnnes, 50, of Orillia faces one charge of possession of a controlled substance, one charge of production of a controlled substance and two charges of promoting and selling instruments for illicit drug use. He was arrested late Tuesday and is to appear in a Barrie court for a bail hearing today.
Source: Halifax Daily News
Pubdate: Thursday, July 2, 1998
Author: RICHARD DOOLEY -- The Daily News
Not all the grass at the Halifax Common is underfoot.
Cannabis Day Picnic `a great party, man'
Some of it, during yesterday's third annual Cannabis Day Picnic to support the legalization of marijuana, was rolled into spliffs, cones, joints, and doobies or painted on hats, T-shirts and bare-breasted women.Organizers were expecting more than 2,000 people to the Commons for what has become one of the most provocative events of Canada Day. But while the crowd of people didn't approach the expected numbers - a steady crowd of about 500 attended the picnic - spirits were, well, high.
"It's a great party, man," said one young picnic-goer who declined to give his name. "It's all about getting marijuana legal."
The rally attracts a diverse group of aging hippies, hippie wannabes, punkers, and others who defy classification. But while the mood is upbeat and friendly, there is a serious side. "We are turning people into criminals who don't deserve to be criminals," said Antigonish pot activist Gene Purdy.
Purdy, 55, is a Rastafarian preacher and antique dealer who says pot should be legalized for anyone who wants to use it. "It's not an addictive substance; it's a herb," he said. Purdy was arrested at a pot-smoking rally in Antigonish last March and charged with possession. He goes to court this fall to answer those charges and when he does, he will argue freedom of religion gives him the right to smoke dope. "It is my religious right to smoke grass and hash," he said.
Purdy, and some of the other speakers at yesterday's rally, argued there are practical reasons to legalize marijuana. Purdy said society can no longer afford to put people in jail for minor offences. "We shouldn't be making criminals out of teenagers for smoking grass," said Purdy. "It effectively screws up their lives."
Bruce Wark, a Coast columnist and University of King's College journalism professor, said Canada's drug laws are archaic. "Our drug laws are stupid," he told the crowd. "They are based on unnatural fear and moral panic."
The police were conspicuous by their absence at the picnic, despite the open smoking of marijuana and small group of bare-breasted women with marijuana leaves painted on their bodies. That seemed to suit many people on the Common.
Bob Howard, a guitarist and avid toker, said the legalization of grass is just a technicality for him.
"Pot is legal in my life," he said.
(Courtesy of NORML (US) Weekly News Dispatches and Iowa NORML.)
French Government Report Says Marijuana Poses Less Dangers Than Alcohol
June 18, 1998, Paris, France: Smoking marijuana poses less of a threat to public health than the regular consumption of alcohol, determined a French government commissioned report Tuesday.
"The report again shows that the basis [for policies prohibiting marijuana] is totally wrong," spokesman for the Greens party announced in a prepared statement. The party is calling for a federal review of the nation's drug policies.
Marijuana has low toxicity, little addictive power, and poses only a minor threat to social behavior, researchers at the French medical institute INSERM concluded. The report identified alcohol, heroin, and cocaine as the drugs most dangerous to health. Tobacco, psychotropic drugs, tranquilizers, and hallucinogens were placed in a second, less harmful group. Marijuana was classified in a third category of substances defined as posing relatively little danger.
"This federally commissioned report concludes, just as the World Health Organization did earlier this year, that marijuana smoking does less harm to public health than drink and cigarettes," said Allen St. Pierre, Executive Director of The NORML Foundation.
Junior Health Minister Bernard Kouchner said that the report's findings would not encourage the federal government to consider decriminalizing the simple possession of marijuana. He called the report "toxicologically correct but politically wrong."
Kouchner's office paid for the INSERM study. For more information, please contact either Allen St. Pierre or Paul Armentano of The NORML Foundation @ (202) 483-8751.
(11 Jul '98 map canada) Click Here : European Drug Policy Tour for U.S. Drug Czar General Barry McCaffrey ; Will Visit the Netherlands, Sweden, other nations. Good Idea. I hope the statisticians and tour organizers worked well together. The "soft approach" actually reduces the sensationalism (free "drug culture" advertising) which the "war on drugs" creates. Holland and other "soft drug" countries have impressive statistics. But Europe is a mixed bag, although decriminalization is the norm now rather than the exception.
When asked about the Dutch "hashish coffeeshops", MacCaffrey said it would not be a good "photo op opportunity". From a strict American point of view this makes senses, but to Europeans and Canadians, it's just puritanical American extremism. Americans are perhaps the main "expatriate" group in Holland, and much of Europe. They go there to work (make money), enjoy life, experience freedom, and spend money ! It's a lot of fun, but I hope McCaffrey's travel expenses are sufficient.
The truth is that the "hashsish coffesshops" are generally not that busy compared to the bars and pubs nearby. There are also not very many coffeeshops outside the center of Amsterdam. Most pot smokers smoke at home, after work.
There are always a good many non-smokers in a particular "hashish coffeeshop". These non-stoned persons are usually getting a cup of coffee, playing a game of chess, table hockey (fussball), pinball, or just talking with friends. There is little pressure on anyone to actually smoke weed, though second hand smoke can create a slight buzz, supposedly, and may enter the bloodsteam sufficiently to trigger "positive" drug tests for all those unfortunate American tourists ! No other nation on Earth has attempted to implement a broadbased drug testing program, like the U.S. model. Europeans are very reluctant to part with their beer, wine, and yes, their weed.
Nations which have decriminalized small amounts of marijuana and/or other drugs, partially or completely : Australia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Belgium, Luxumbourg, parts of Canada, parts of the U.S., others ???
The main phenomenon not being routinely reported is that responsible working people are now the main group of "marijuana users" in the Netherlands : ninth article. Once it is understood that marijuana usage does not undermine society, there are few if any objections to it.
(21 July USA TODAY "Northern Exposure", front page) quotes U. S. Border Patrol agents who say that "$7000 a pound B. C. bud" is being traded pound for pound for pure cocaine.
The most exaggerated claims I have heard about the cost of good quality B.C. bud would put it at about $500 Canadian dolllars an ounce retail. If we assume that the wholesale cost of that ounce was about 1/2 the retail price, then that pound sold for about $4000 maximum.
Since marijuana isn't exactly in short supply out there, I really doubt that any sane person would pay $7000 a pound for it. Extremely potent weed is just as easy to grow as lousy weed.
Marijuananews.com reports on USA Today article : click here.
Marijuana and Stroke Recovery
The stroke recovery benefits of pot may be quite profound though as the following older postings indicate:
(1997 or 1998 postings:)
Marijuana, or One of Its Main Ingredients, Probably Prevents Brain Damage in Stroke Victims. NOTE : NORML Canada has always gone to great lengths to avoid any kind of sensationalistic pseudoscientific conjecturing. The following reports are not pseudoscience, but are apparently truly historically notable medical discoveries. Consider that many (most ?) people in the world, until now, were convinced that marijuana damaged the brain.
FACT : It is a medically accepted fact that all smoke containing carbon monoxide, such as tobacco or cannabis smoke, can rob the body of oxygen. Carbon monoxide from any smoke binds to red blood cells, preventing the transport of oxygen to the cells, and preventing the removal of carbon dioxide from the cells. Smoking too much marijuana, or anything else, for excessive periods of time, or holding one's breath while inhaling any smoke, could all be bad for the brain since oxygen is being withheld.
As every pilot, mountain climber, paramedic, scuba diver, and others, are taught, the harmful effects of smoke inhalation, and consequent oxygen deprivation, increase with altitude. Strangely, it is perfectly legal today for airplane pilots to smoke tobacco cigarettes while flying airplanes in most parts of the world, despite the fact that significant and measurable impairment occurs, as cabin altitude increases. It is likely that this same impairment occurs from marijuana smoke despite its protective effects on the brain. The acute effects of marijuana smoking are probably incompatible with the piloting of airplanes, although only commercial and military pilots are currently drug tested in the U.S.
If marijuana contains ingredients which protect the brain, then this could explain why research has not shown the brain damage which Nancy Reagan was so sure was occurring to all the "pot heads".
Another point, widely held by pot growers, seed breeders and others I met in Amsterdam, is that high potency marijuana may be far less harmful than low grade marijauna since the harmful components are ingested in a smaller proportion to the (possibly) beneficial components, the THC, cannabidiol, and other related compounds. Most people are not able to smoke a great deal of really potent weed, thus less harm from smoke is produced.
Perhaps marijuana has been blamed, for decades, for the effects of other more dangerous drugs or other toxic effects from other sources.
Any further fears of marijuana smoke induced harm could be put to rest by 0) don't smoke it at all, 1) smoke only high potency weed, and don't smoke so much, 2) eat marijuana brownies or other edible marijuana foods, or 3) possibly, taking a synthetic pill containing thc, cbn, cannabidiol, or other things, which appear to protect the brain.
How effective is marijuana compared to other famous herbal antioxidants ? The articles below do not indicate.
Breathing air in congested and polluted city traffic (L.A., New York, Mexico City ?) is probably worse for the brain than moderate marijuana smoking in terms of toxins inhaled.
Reports : Science News article as reported at Medical Marijuana Magazine : click here. (July 1998 High Times ) Marijuana, not just one of its ingredients, also helps prevent brain damage in stroke victims ; more : click here. Earlier report from Britain, indexed by marijuananews.com : click here.
Top of Article.
The Toronto Star Thursday, August 6, 1998 email@example.com AIDS patient fights for legalized pot Immunity from arrest, reliable supply sought By Wendy Darroch Toronto Star Staff Reporter The Canadian government discriminates against AIDS patients by denying them easy, legal access to marijuana, a court has been told. James Wakeford, 53, who was diagnosed with HIV in 1989 and had full-blown AIDS by 1993, is seeking an order exempting him from arrest on marijuana charges. He battled chronic fatigue, extreme diarrhea, weight loss, insomnia, night sweats, loss of appetite, herpes and dehydration with massive amounts of anti-viral medication. But the medication left him with constant nausea and a loss of weight known as wasting, so he turned to marijuana, an Ontario Court, general division, judge was told yesterday. Wakeford found marijuana gave him an appetite and eased the nausea. Alan Young, a professor at Osgoode Hall who is representing Wakeford, urged Mr. Justice Harry LaForme to grant an order exempting Wakeford and his caregivers from arrest and prosecution on marijuana charges. He also asked that the federal government be ordered to immediately establish a program that would provide clean, inexpensive marijuana so people such as Wakeford, who is dying, won't have to go to the black market and possibly get contaminated pot. He argued that his client, a co-founder of the Ontario Association of the Children's Mental Health Centres, was having his Charter rights violated. Marijuana, like many other drugs, is a controlled drug. People who are ill can be prescribed controlled drugs, but marijuana is not one of them. This is discrimination, Young argued. Although there is a way to get an exemption, Young said ``the red tape is so massive it mummifies. You can't breathe through it.'' Court was told it is theoretically possible to get access to medicinal marijuana through a Health Canada program. But the applicant must specify a legal, licensed manufacturer for the drug, and there isn't a manufacturer in the world that would satisfy Health Canada's criteria, Young said. Crown lawyer Chris Amerasinghe said Wakeford's facts do not fit the legal test in order to get a constitutional exemption. The onus is on him to prove his life, liberty and security are at risk. ``Without marijuana will his life be in danger?'' he asked. Young said marijuana won't save, but ease, Wakeford's life. His liberty is at risk because he is subject to arrest and prosecution if he uses it illegally. The case continues.Ottawa Citizen firstname.lastname@example.org 05 Aug 1998 Marijuana helped to save my life, prominent Harvard scholar says By: Luiza Chwialkowska Stephen Jay Gould tells Toronto court to allow medical use of drug His books crowd best-seller lists, he holds 40 honorary degrees, and in legendary lectures that combine poetry with the study of ancient fossils, he has taught generations of Harvard students how life evolved on Earth. In July 1982, doctors told geologist Stephen Jay Gould -- whose mind dwells in prehistory and who measures time in billions of years -- that he had eight short months to live. With his career in full bloom, he was diagnosed with a rare and incurable cancer called abdominal mesothelioma. A case study in determination, Mr. Gould was one of the first people on Earth to beat the disease, thanks to surgery, radiation, and years of torturous chemotherapy. But the ``most important effect upon my eventual cure,'' he says in hindsight, was the illegal drug, marijuana. Mr. Gould is one in a chorus of patients and experts whose stories and studies will be heard today in Ontario General Division Court, where a Toronto AIDS patient is suing the federal government for the right to smoke marijuana as part of his medical treatment. An academician who hates to fog his prodigious mind with any kind of substance -- he doesn't touch alcohol and hates drugs -- Mr. Gould smoked marijuana to reduced the otherwise uncontrollable nausea that came with the chemotherapy that saved his life. ``I was miserable and came to dread the frequent treatments with an almost perverse intensity,'' he wrote of the chemotherapy. ``Absolutely nothing in the available arsenal of (anti-nausea medications) worked at all.'' Marijuana, on the other hand, ``worked like a charm.'' Marijuana also works for Jim Wakeford, a 53-year-old Toronto community activist with AIDS, who says his right to smoke the drug for its anti-nausea and appetite-inducing effects is protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. ``It is beyond my comprehension,'' wrote Mr. Gould of marijuana laws, ``that any humane person would withhold such a beneficial substance from people in such great need simply because others use it for different purposes.'' Mr. Wakeford is asking for a constitutional exemption from the laws he has to break to produce and possess the drug. He also wants the court to force the federal government to ``produce and/or provide (him) a lawful and safe source of medicinal marijuana.'' The founder of such highly regarded charities as the Oolagen Community Centre, the Ontario Association of Children's Mental Health Centres, and the Casey House Foundation, Mr. Wakeford almost died this spring while waiting for this case to be heard. His doctor, Toronto AIDS specialist John Goodhew, says smoking two marijuana cigarettes a day is keeping Mr. Wakeford alive. AIDS was causing him to literally waste away earlier this year. His weight dropped from 140 pounds to 118 pounds. He was put on intensive intravenous feeding that gave him hepatitis and nearly killed him. Mr. Wakeford quit that and used marijuana to stimulate his appetite instead. He is now back to 132 pounds and will restart his anti-AIDS medicines when he gains more weight. When he starts them again, however, he will still need the marijuana. Like Mr. Gould, he uses it to fight nausea. His lawyer, Osgoode Hall law professor Alan Young, will argue today that Canada's marijuana laws violate Mr. Wakeford's rights under Sections 7 and 15 of the Charter. ``Criminalizing the therapeutic use of marijuana constitutes a deprivation of life, liberty and security of the person (Section 7),'' Mr. Young states in court documents. ``State interference with bodily integrity and serious state-imposed psychological stress constitutes a serious breach of security of the person.'' The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act also violates Section 15 of the Charter, says Mr. Young, because it ``denies (Mr. Wakeford) equal benefit of the law on the basis of the enumerated ground of physical disability.'' The legislation also discriminates against AIDS victims, he will tell the court. Rather than bringing a live caravan of witnesses before the court, lawyers have submitted testimony in the form of written affidavits over the past two months. Today is the first time they will argue in person before Judge Harry LaForme. Mr. Young will summarize four volumes of evidence consisting of four personal stories, including Mr. Gould's, and expert opinions from seven pharmacologists, psychiatrists, oncologists, and AIDS specialists. The medical experts include Lester Grinspoon, a professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, who has been studying the social and medicinal aspects of cannabis since 1969, and documented Mr. Gould's case in a book Marijuana -- The Forbidden Medicine. ``Marijuana is the wonder drug of the future,'' Dr. Grinspoon told the Citizen in an interview yesterday. Comparing it to penicillin, Dr. Grinspoon said the drug is versatile in its uses. ``It can help glaucoma, migraines, muscle spasms, and nausea,'' he says, is cheap to produce, (``30 to 40 cents per dose rather than $30-$40 for conventional anti-nausea medicines,'') and is ``non-toxic.'' ``One to two thousand people in the U.S. die every year from Aspirin, but no one has ever documented a death from marijuana,'' said Dr. Grinspoon. Mr. Wakeford, on the other hand, might die without it. ``The marijuana is what is allowing him to eat and live,'' insists Dr. Goodhew. A verdict is likely to take several weeks, but could come as early as this afternoon. Mr. Wakeford vows to continue his fight regardless of today's outcome. He won a $50,000 grant from the federal Court Challenges program that supports cases challenging legislation under the equality provisions of the Charter. He has also raised $10,000 for the Wakeford Medical Marijuana Expense Fund and is looking for more donations. ``As long as I'm still alive, I will try to get safe, clean, and affordable medical marijuana for everyone with HIV and AIDS,'' he says.Thursday, August 6, 1998 Toronto Sun email@example.com POTHEADS TAKE TORIES TO COURT By: DAVID GAMBLE, OTTAWA BUREAU OTTAWA -- Two pot-puffing "churchmen" are going to court after their bid for the Tory leadership went up in smoke. Rev. Brother Michael Baldasaro, the leader of a church that holds pot as its high sacrament, said he and Rev. Brother Walter Tucker have applied for a judicial review by the Federal Court of the Tories' $30,000 deposit requirement for all leadership candidates. "The (leadership selection) process, it's undemocratic and it's unfair," Baldasaro said yesterday. The men have received a"donation" from former Tory leadership candidate John Long to cover costs. Baldasaro, who lives on a disability pension resulting from a head injury, said the main plank of his platform is the legalization of marijuana and the cancellation of all pot-related criminal charges. - CClist, the electronic news and information service of Cannabis Culture To unsubscribe, send a message to firstname.lastname@example.org containing the command "unsubscribe cclist". - Subscribe to Cannabis Culture Magazine! Write to: 324 West Hastings Street, Vancouver BC, CANADA, V6B 1A1 Visit Cannabis Culture online at http://www.cannabisculture.com/ .FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: Cannabis for Migraine Treatment July 12, 1998 An authoritative review article on "medical marijuana" that examines its long history of use in treating migraine and its underlying scientific basis has just been released in the peer-reviewed journal, Pain, the official journal of the International Association for the Study of Pain, published by Elsevier Science: Russo, E.B., "Cannabis for Migraine Treatment: The Once and Future Prescription?: An Historical and Scientific Review" Pain 76(1-2):3-8, 1998. The article is the most comprehensive review of the topic in the medical literature in over a century, a time when Cannabis was a favored mainstream medicine for migraine and other indications. The formatted article is available to those with a pdf viewer at the following URL: http://www.elsevier.com:80/cas/tree/store/pain/sub/1998/76/1-2/3632.pdf The pdf viewer may be downloaded, and the article viewed at the following URL: http://www.elsevier.com:80/cgi-bin/cas/tree/store/pain/cas_free/browse/brows e.cgi?year=1998&volume=76&issue=1-2 An unformatted version of the article will be available shortly at: http://maps.org/ and another has been made available by Oregonians for Medical Rights at the following URL: http://www.teleport.com/~omr/omr_russo.html Dr. Ethan Russo has been trying since 1996 to obtain official clearance to conduct an FDA approved clinical trial evaluating marijuana's safety and efficacy in a sub-population of patients who have not found relief from other "standard" migraine medications. In 1997, Dr. Russo's first application to the National Institutes of Health for permission to conduct his study was rejected: http://www.maps.org/news-letters/v08n1/08115rus.html On June 10, 1998, Dr. Russo submitted a revised double-blind crossover study protocol to the NIH to examine the safety and efficacy of smoked Cannabis as compared to oral dronabinol (synthetic THC- an active ingredient of marijuana) and injected sumatriptan (Imitrex- the current gold standard) in acute migraine treatment. Dr. Russo is a clinical neurologist at the Western Montana Clinic in Missoula, MT, Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine at the University of Washington, Adjunct Associate Professor in the Department of Pharmacy at the University of Montana, and Medical Director of the Inpatient Pain Treatment Program, St. Patrick Hospital, Missoula, MT. Despite the publicity surrounding "medical marijuana," the federal government has approved only one clinical study in the last fifteen years, that of Dr. Donald Abrams of the University of California, San Francisco, to examine its safety in the treatment of AIDS wasting syndrome. Dr. Abrams worked through various channels and federal agencies for six years before he was able to begin his study in May 1998. Other than Dr. Abrams, Dr. Russo remains the only other researcher seeking permission to study any clinical application of medical marijuana in a patient population. As a result of his experiences Dr. Russo has been outspoken concerning the hurdles the federal government has erected with regard to Cannabis research. Dr. Russo has recently been quoted or provided expert testimony in legal cases in three Western states on clinical applications of Cannabis in neurological disorders and chronic pain conditions. The issue of "medical marijuana" remains highly charged politically, and debate rages both in Congress and in several statewide ballot measures. Multiple polls indicate that a majority of the public supports the legalization and availability of Cannabis use by patients to treat a variety of medical conditions. For further information: Ethan Russo, M.D. Department of Neurosciences Western Montana Clinic 515 West Front St. Missoula, MT 59807 Voice: (406) 329-7315 FAX: (406) 329-7453 E-mail: email@example.com
Smears/Lies Published About Emery, Marijuana, etc.EMERY RESPONDS TO THE PROVINCE'S REEFER MADNESS The Province newspaper, in Vancouver, BC, is infamous for its misinformation campaign against Canada's cannabis culture. Mark Tonner, a Vancouver Police officer and a columnist for the Province, has claimed that all marijuana growers are pedophilic biker-satanists. Most recently, the Province has been claiming that marijuana makes people murderous and that BC weed is being traded "pound for pound" with cocaine from the States. According to the Province, the US sees BC as "another Mexico", which may very well be true if American authorities start to believe the nonsense they read in certain Canadian papers. Recently, Marc Emery, marijuana advocate and publisher of Cannabis Culture magazine, responded to the Province's truth-deprived rantings. The particular article which prompted his letter is included below. Others should be encouraged by Marc's letter to write similar letters to the editor of the Province, complaining about their irresponsible reporting and mismanagment of the facts. Send letters to the Editor of the Province at: firstname.lastname@example.org -Dan Loehndorf, Assistant Editor, CC. "KILLER WEED" By Marc Emery Marijuana Advocate and Publisher of Cannabis Culture Magazine To the Editor of the Province: The same day your sensational and marijuana bashing cop-ed piece was splashed across 2.5 pages of your grade-six reader threshold tabloid, I was interviewed as the marijuana industry representative in the international newsmagazine "The Economist". Oh what a difference some journalism classes can show! You say "Cops worry that the new potent pot is turning some users violent -even murderous-". Many pot users in Canada have been murdered by police in "The line of duty", all unarmed and shot without warning (DAniel Posse, North Vancouver, killing in 1993, Ottawa - 1994, etc), but no one has ever died from consuming marijuana. It is safer than peanuts, which kill over 20 people in NOrth America every year from anaflactic shock. Marijuana has been consumed by people of planet Earth for 8,000 years, by all cultures and all races of human. It is rope, clothing, fibre, food oil, religious ceremonial euphorice, therapeutic pain reliever, sense restorer, hope giver, relief from stress. It has passed muster by several Royal Commissions, including Canada, England and Australia, as to safety. It has been endorsed for decriminalization because of its lack of demonstrable harm by three courts in the last year (Clay trial, Caine trial, Krieger trial). Members of all parties in Parliament have smoked marijuana, Jean Charest, Kim Campbell, Pierre Trudeau have admitted partaking. Olympic gold medallists smoke it. Everyone in our society is exposed to marijuana, and the only demonstrable harm offered to the millions of marijuana culture enthusiasts are the jails that millions of people worldwide suffer in each year because of the prohibition. THe public supports decriminalization, and the police, sensing an imminent loss in their gestapo lifestyle, are determined to shore up the Nazi style War on Drugs with any lie and distortion that can be passed off as fact to unsophisticated screed's like the Province. If police want to end organized crime, police corruption, drug overdoses, drug crime, smuggling, drug poverty, gang turf wars, prostitution, and all other social problems associated with government prohibition, then police need only recommend the one solution that will solve all these ills - legalization. But police fixate on a bogeymen, that if it didn't exist, the police would surely have to invent - the Hell's Angels. Though they have not convicted one single Hell's Angel, they have busted in over 500 grow operations in the lower mainland this year, many of these people I know, and not one of them I know is owned by organized crime, but in fact are just ordinary everyday Canadians who like growing pot and, like all of us, need to earn a living. The police and prohibitionist politicians are the enemy of millions of marijuana Canadians and their families and friends. If police want to increase the heat towards an already angry and frustrated three-million strong Canadian marijuana lobby, who have seen their members beaten, arrested, humiliated and demonized by police for well over 30 yerars now, then they had better be prepared to be hated for generations to come. One day the War on Cannabis Canadians will be a two-sided affair if the police don't back off now. Three million Canadians can't all be wrong, but we sure are viciously discriminated against and villified, in part because thoughtless and irrational rags give voice to the sinister police state utterings of uniformed thugs. Marc Emery Publisher - Cannabis Culture email@example.com 681-4690 Monday, Wednesday, Friday, days. B.C. MARIJUANA TRADE SOARS The Province (Vancouver, BC) Monday, July 6, 1998 By Alan Ferguson, Staff Reporter It's just like the Roaring '20s, when booze from Canada was smuggled across the border into the 'dry' United States. Only this time, the contraband flooding over the line is high-grade B.C. marijuana -- and cocaine from south of the border is coming here in return. Cops worry that the new, highly potent pot is turning some users violent -- even murderous -- and they want soft judges to get tough on the rising number of smugglers and growers they bust A cross-border trade in illegal drugs smuggled between B.C. and the United States has reached proportions that put the age of Prohibition in the shade, senior police and customs officers say. Arrests of smugglers and drug seizures show a pattern of barter in which high-potency marijuana grown in B.C. is being exchanged pound for pound for cocaine from the U.S. Police efforts to crack down on the smugglers are hampered by the ease with which they operate across the unprotected border. Along Zero Avenue in Langley, where only a ditch separates parallel roads in Canada and the U.S., drug movement has become so prevalent it has been christened by police the "Ho Chi Minh Trail," after the smuggling route used by the communists for supplies during the Vietnam war. On the U.S. side alone, more than $12 million in illegal drugs was seized last year. Police say this represents a fraction of what is getting through in a trade that may be worth as much as $3 billion a year. They say cocaine coming into Canada quickly finds its way on to the streets of Lower Mainland communities, where it is often injected with shared needles, fuelling the spread of HIV. Doug Whalley, assistant U.S. attorney in Seattle, said: "My concern is not so much the Canadian marijuana coming down here; it's the cocaine flooding in from our side that I fear is going to have an awful impact on your people." Prosecutors in Whatcom county are "completely swamped" with border drug-trafficking cases, says Whalley. Sometimes the quantities are "mind boggling," he says. "Two Canadians admitted bringing in a total of 1,700 pounds of marijuana in 10-pound loads. And we made one seizure of $200,000 in profits being taken back to Canada." Enormous profits are being made by the B.C. marijuana growers, says Staff-Sgt. Rick Lawrence of Langley RCMP, which last month set up a special squad to bust "grow ops." The marijuana is being grown in indoor hydroponic gardens. The RCMP's Drug Awarenesss Unit estimates that there are at least 1,000 grow ops in the Lower Mainland and another 1,000 in the Interior. "It's bigger than during Prohibition," says Lawrence, speaking of the era when Canadian booze was smuggled into a "dry" U.S. Lawrence shows off a $100,000 haul of Mexican Red marijuana, packed in plastic bags ready for export, that was recently found abandoned on Zero Avenue. Most growers hire "runners" to take the dope across the border, he says, paying them between $2,000 and $3,000. The runners "don't look like stereotypical criminals," says Const. Pierre Lemaitre of Langley RCMP. "We've had a mother and daughter -- even an elderly couple." Police in Langley are trying to establish a Border Watch -- along Neighborhood Watch lines -- to encourage citizens to report suspicious activities along the border. On July 28, an open meeting will be held at the Langley civic centre where landlords will be warned that most grow ops are set up in rented properties by people who make every show of being "normal" citizens. In fact, say police, most of the drug trade is controlled by organized-crime gangs -- mostly bikers -- and, increasingly, they are armed. Firearms were found in one in five grow ops raided in Surrey. Also in Surrey, three homicides last year were linked to gang rivalry. In Kamloops, there have been drive-by shootings attributed to the same cause. "Rips" -- raids by one gang on another's crop -- are common. In at least 10 cases in Surrey, police have had to intervene to prevent violence. A six-month police undercover operation in Kamloops, involving wiretaps and surveillance, revealed insights into how dope gangs operate. What emerged in a court case last month was the existence of a provincewide network organizing the procurement of huge supplies of marijuana for eventual export. "It was a highly organized effort, with the surveillance showing people meeting with their contacts," said a source close to the investigation. In one seizure alone, $28,000 US was found stuffed into false-bottomed spray cans of lubricant. Sgt. Dennis Ryan, head of the RCMP south central drug district, says: "The (Kamloops) organization has been neutralized. The main players were convicted." But he admits that the unnamed "contacts" escaped scot-free. Of the five men charged in the case, one was sentenced to 18 months, another to only 90 days. The rest escaped with fines. Although police confidently assert that "70 per cent of commercial grow operations are controlled by the Hells Angels," no biker has yet been convicted of such an offence. Nevertheless, Const. Vince Arsenault of the Surrey RCMP drug section insists: "The evidence we have is that the Hells Angels control these operations and that the people doing the growing are just the babysitters." Special squads formed to bust grow ops, sometimes called "green teams," are now running in Surrey, Langley and Chilliwack -- but, in fact, every RCMP drug section has personnel assigned to fight the problem. Resources are still scarce, however. Last year, Surrey's green team raided 143 grow ops -- but a list of 200 targets remains. Changes in the law mean police can't go barging into premises merely on the suspicion they may be grow ops. Says Langley's Rick Lawrence: "We have to build up a case with solid evidence before we ask for a search warrant. It's a time-consuming task." - CClist, the electronic news and information service of Cannabis Culture To unsubscribe, send a message to firstname.lastname@example.org containing the command "unsubscribe cclist". - Subscribe to Cannabis Culture Magazine! Write to: 324 West Hastings Street, Vancouver BC, CANADA, V6B 1A1 Visit Cannabis Culture online at http://www.cannabisculture.com/ .Reply-To: email@example.com To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: charter challange Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii I am a lawyer in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia. I have heard recently from some friends that there is a man in Antigonish, Nova Scotia who is looking for someone to some sort of Charter challenge for a possession charge. I do not know this guys name or anything but some friends have told me that the news feature said he was going to be contacting your organization to see if you could find him a lawyer. In law school I wrote a paper called "The Interaction of Law with the Use of Marijuana" which I enjoyed writing more than any other papers in University. I have been practicing law for four years. I started out doing a lot of criminal work but now do mostly personal injury and insurance work. I have had four jury trials and a couple of cases before the Nova Scotia Court of Appeal. I am practicing on my own with two support staff. We are busy and doing pretty good. However, I would be interested in spending some time on the issue of marijuana legalization. I would be very interested in talking with the guy from Antigonish. If anyone at your office hears from him could you please have him contact me at 1-888-434-0398. Thanks for your help.